Article Type:  Short Communication

Title:  Assessment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

Year: 2023; Volume: 3; Issue: 2; Page No: 9 – 13

Authors:  Bayan Omar Sharif*1, Zhino Raouf Ali2, Hawar Mardan Mohammed3


1Specialist Nurse, University of Human Development, College of Nursing, Sulaimani, Iraq,.

2Specialist Nurse, Health Development and Training Center, Directorate of Health, Sulaimani, Iraq.

3Hiwa Hospital, Sulaimani Health Director, Iraq.

Article Summary:  Submitted: 23-April-2023; Revised: 18-May-2023; Accepted: 04-June-2023; Published: 30-June-2023 


Background: A Gram-negative bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes the stomach lining and is a substantial contributor to several gastrointestinal illnesses. It is a spiral-shaped bacterium with several modifications that enable it to live in the stomach’s severely acidic environment.

Methods: In this paper, we discussed Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) disease, its epidemiology, pathophysiology, hygiene, causes, risk factors, clinical manifestation and complications, method of transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and incubation period in the human body.

Results: The incidence and prevalence of H. pylori infection can be influenced by factors such as age, socioeconomic status, geographical location, and living conditions. Generally, H. pylori infection is more common in developing countries with poorer sanitation and hygiene standards. it is estimated that approximately 50% of the world’s population is infected with H. pylori.

Conclusion: We have concluded that although the precise way of H. pylori transmission is not entirely understood, it is thought to largely spread via oral-oral or fecal-oral routes. It can manufacture the enzyme urease, which turns stomach urea into ammonia, neutralizing the acidic environment and creating a suitable environment for its life. Today, H. pylori is recognized as the primary contributor to chronic gastritis.

Key Words: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), epidemiology, causes, complication, prevalence, treatment

Source of funding: None

Conflict of interest:  None

Corresponding Author:

Mrs. Bayan Omar Sharif, M.Sc. (Nursing),

University of Human Development,

College of Nursing,



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