Article Type: Original Article
Title:  A multivariate analysis approach on identifying of influencing factors and the chance of development of diabetic eye disease among diabetes in a diabetic Centre of Southwestern Malabar region of India

Year: 2021; Volume: 1; Issue: 2; Page No: 5 – 9

Authors:  Amitha Prasad1,  Senthilvel Vasudevan2

DOI: 10.55349/ijmsnr.20211259

Affiliations: 1Biostatistician Technician, IQVIA, World Trade Center Kochi (Brigarde), 7th floor, Tower A, Info Park SEZ, Info Park Phase-1 Campus, Kakkanad, Kochi, Kerala, India.  2Assistant Professor of Statistics (Biostatistics and Epidemiology), Department of Pharmacy Practice, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Article Summary:  Submitted: 02-October-2021; Revised: 02-November-2021; Accepted: 08-December-2021; Published : 31-December-2021


Background: Diabetic Retinopathy is a non-communicable disease and metabolic disorder.  It is a public health problem in Worldwide.  In this paper, finding influencing factors and how much probability to development of DR among known T2DM patients.

Materials and Methods:  This was a hospital-based cross-sectional and observational study among T2DM patients, with and without DR in the diabetes clinic with sample of 150 patients.  Statistical analysis used chi-square and binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of DR after controlling of confounders.

Results: In this present study, among 150 patients, 39 (26%) patients had DR. Smoking habit was strongly associated with development of DR (AOR=15.39, p=0.002), patients had history of hypertension was associated with DR (AOR=1.10, p=0.016), medication, in that insulin users were strongly associated with DR (AOR=5.72, p=0.002), duration of diabetes mellitus with >10 years was associated with DR (AOR=1.18, p=0.001), total cholesterol with abnormal was 5-fold more increase in risk with the development of DR (AOR=5.86, p=0.065) but not significant, high hba1c with >6.5% was associated with the progression of DR (AOR=1.34, p=0.035), and fasting blood sugar with abnormal was associated with the progression of DR (AOR=1.01, p=0.027) except age but, showed positive association with DR.  Probability of developing DR in a T2DM patient was 98%.

Conclusion:  From this study, we revealed that influencing variables were hba1c, smoking habit, intake of tablet/insulin, duration of DM, history of hypertension and fasting blood sugar.  The chance/probability of developing retinopathy was very high among known diabetes patients those who had longer duration of DM.  Hence, we have recommended a periodic eye screening is mandatory in T2DM patients.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, influencing factors, probability, multivariate analysis

Source of funding: None

Conflict of interest:  None

Corresponding Author:

Dr. Senthilvel Vasudevan,

Assistant Professor of Statistics,

Department of Pharmacy Practice,

College of Pharmacy,

King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences,

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Email ID:

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