Article Type: Short Communication
Multivariate Logistic Regression Models in the Progression of Vision Threatening Disease
Year: 2023; Volume: 3; Issue: 3; Page No: 16 – 19
Authors: Senthilvel Vasudevan
Affiliations: Assistant Professor in Statistics (Biostatistics), Department of Community Medicine, Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Ariyur, Pondicherry – 605 102. Email ID: email@example.com
|How to cite this article: Vasudevan S. Multivariate Logistic Regression Models in the Progression of Vision Threatening Disease. Int J Sci and Med Res 2023;3(3):16-19.
Article Summary: Submitted: 10-July-2023; Revised: 12-August-2023; Accepted: 05-September-2023; Published: 30-September-2023
Diabetic Mellitus is a disease of inadequate control of level of glucose in blood. It is also happened by disorder of carbohydrate metabolism by impaired ability to produce insulin in blood. In this article, I have to discuss about how to find risk factors and how much its influence in the progression of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), to identify the presence of DR and its progression by formulating some mathematical equations with suitable variables and to find several stages of DR and its progression. The continuous variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation and categorial variables as frequency and proportions. In this, we have discussed about various kind of statistical prediction models.
Found the influencing factors in the progression of DR by using multiple logistic regression analysis, predicted the probability of a DM patient in the progression of DR and found the probability of DR among diabetes up to a given period of time and using by Markov Chain Analysis found the TPM and the absorbing state in a DM patient and to identify as having complete vision loss.
I have concluded that the statistical models were explained and found the influenced factors and risk ratio to develop DR among DM patients has been computed, and transition of DR which predict the chance to develop DR in a DM patient and found the probability to develop DR over a period of time has also explained via procedure.
Keywords: diabetic mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, statistical models, risk ratio
Dr. Senthilvel Vasudevan, Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor in Statistics (Biostatistics),
Department of Community Medicine,
Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital & Research Centre,
Ariyur, Pondicherry – 605 102. India.
Email ID: firstname.lastname@example.org
Diabetic Mellitus is a disease of inadequate control of level of glucose in blood. It is also happened by disorder of carbohydrate metabolism by impaired ability to produce insulin in blood. DM affects about 180 million people in the presently and it is a public health problem in worldwide. DM causes majorly blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke, and lower limb amputation. Increase of 3% DM mortality by age in between 2000 and 2019 years. Moreover, there was an estimated 2 million deaths due DM and kidney disease.  Diabetes symptoms may occur suddenly or if it is mild then it may notice after some years. DM symptoms are feeling very thirsty, needing to urinate more often than usual, blurred vision, feeling tired and losing weight unintentionally. After a long period time, DM can damage blood vessels in heart, eyes, kidney and nerves. There are three types of DM are, Type-1 DM, Type-2 DM and Gestational DM.  Type-I DM is caused an autoimmune reaction. This is stopping the insulin making in a person. 5 – 10% of people have affected by diabetes with type-I; In Type-1 DM, a person body doesn’t use insulin well and can’t keep blood sugar level at normal. This type of DM is in 90 – 95% of people in world level; and Gestational DM develops in pregnant women who have never had diabetes. Usually, GDM has gone away after the baby born. Diabetes causes Diabetic Nephropathy in diabetes patients. 
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of DM. It is a microvascular complication of DM. DR is also called “Vision Threatening Disease (VTD)”.  In year 1990, as per WHO report revealed that 4.58% global total population has change in prevalence of visual impairment; in that 55% of visually impaired people are women; 89% of visually impaired people those who are live in low- and middle-income countries. Globally, 1.1 billion people with near-vision impairment. As per WHO, in the year 2019 global target to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25%. Globally, nearly 2.2 billion people have a vision impairment.  One third of times more chance of getting blindness in diabetics than non-diabetics. DR is causing vision loss in worldwide and nearly three fourth of population were affected those who were living in under developing income countries. DR is a very worst difficulty and all parts of diabetic eye will be affected as shown in [Figure-1].
Figure – 1 View of eye affected by diabetic retinopathy
Main factors for development of DR are duration of DM, glycemic control, age, sex, high blood pressure, kidney diseases, heredity, lipids profiles,